application of seismic refraction

Reflection seismology (or seismic reflection) is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from reflected seismic waves.The method requires a controlled seismic source of energy, such as dynamite or Tovex blast, a specialized air gun or a seismic vibrator, commonly known by the trademark name Vibroseis. For best results viewing and printing PDF documents, it is recommended that you download areas, greater accra region . The ERT technique was applied using four lines over and outside of the landslide scar using the Wenner electrode configuration. In this study, a seismic refraction survey was conducted to map the topography of bedrock in Al-Amrat, North of Sultanate of Oman. Common applications include: Mapping depth to bedrock and bedrock topography. Recent advances in equipment, sound sources, and computer interpretation techniques make seismic refraction a highly effective and economical means of obtaining subsurface data in hydrologic studies. Application of Shallow Seismic Refraction and 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging to Site Investigations . v��y��9 ��2��ʞ�.��9p@�k~��3&Yi=�ۛ��ܠ�+�C�.6�������:� �2�ˉ����@�j�I�ߘh�Η���w���ļ�x'����7=}�mx�ї�m~����0�y�t�P�n~�� �Σ�Lr�I'4��2)�wS�ul`j��WQ�N^F�i�s1��;0U��U�l|p�|�S�j����4B@�CpiO -�Ex���8��G&��Љ��8�1��W�Rʡ�w'\�Sx�˜T 0000005801 00000 n Seismic Refraction (SR) is a surface geophysics method that utilizes the refraction of seismic waves on geology layers and rock/soil units to characterize subsurface geologic conditions. (��E@h�0�ġQ���d8 �0����m��c��$r3ňШ8�i;*��@�qG��p���w Conventional interpretation of seismic refraction data visualizes the subsurface as a layered medium where each layer has a discrete seismic velocity. The targeted rock lies beneath unconsolidated rocks. For three years we have used synthetic and field data to investigate the effectiveness of commercial refraction tomography codes on both simple and complex subsurface velocity structures, with the ultimate goal of determining the suitability of the method for karst problems. Application of seismic refraction tomography for tunnel design in Santa Clara Mountain, San Juan, Argentina. Within 10 years, the dominant method of hydrocarbon exploration. This parameter typically correlates well with rock hardness and density, which in turn tend to correlate with changes in lithology, degree of fracturing, water content, and weathering. Recent advances in equipment, the documents to your computer and open them with Adobe Reader. ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format 84-746, Explore recent publications by USGS authors, Browse all of Pubs Warehouse by publication type and year, Descriptions of US Geological Survey Report Series, Application of seismic-refraction techniques to hydrologic studies(1988), Application of seismic-refraction techniques to hydrologic studies. There are two basic approaches to seismic refraction data analysis: layer-cake and tomographic inversion. trailer << /Size 127 /Info 98 0 R /Root 104 0 R /Prev 1451646 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 104 0 obj << /Pages 102 0 R /Type /Catalog >> endobj 125 0 obj << /S 149 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 126 0 R >> stream Recent advances in equipment, sound sources, and computer interpretation techniques make seismic refraction a highly effective and economical means of obtaining subsurface data in hydrologic studies. 0000003782 00000 n application-of-seismic-refraction-tomography-to-karst-cavities 1/1 Downloaded from corporatevault.emerson.edu on January 11, 2021 by guest [MOBI] Application Of Seismic Refraction Tomography To Karst Cavities Getting the books application of seismic refraction tomography to karst cavities now is not type of challenging means. During the past 30 years, seismic-refraction methods have been used extensively in petroleum, mineral, and engineering investigations and to some extent for hydrologic applications. In this paper, an uphole refraction survey was carried out at the location of LISO Field in Niger Delta Nigeria in order to determine/estimate the thickness and velocities of the strata with a view to ascertaining the suitability of these layers for seismic reflection data acquisition and engineering structures. Seismic refraction was the first major geophysical method to be applied in the search for oil bearing structures but its application in oil exploration is reduce over years due to variety of the modern reflection surveys. 0000013976 00000 n 0000015944 00000 n 0000013953 00000 n 6 A seismogram with picked first breaks All picked travel times are put together and acoustic layers assigned (Fig. With this assumption and by measuring the travel time of the refracted seismic waves, the thickness and dip angle of each ground layer can be obtained ( Sheriff and Geldart, 1995 ). ��O100~t``�J�+ "��_�f80� 2d�6t endstream endobj 126 0 obj 172 endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Page /MediaBox [ 0 0 577 757 ] /Parent 99 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F0 106 0 R >> /XObject << /im1 124 0 R >> /ProcSet 122 0 R >> /Contents [ 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 123 0 R ] /CropBox [ 0 0 577 757 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F0 /BaseFont /Helvetica-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 107 0 obj 2108 endobj 108 0 obj << /Filter /LZWDecode /Length 107 0 R >> stream It was found that the seismic refraction survey produce the results which almost similar to the borehole method. (�1%�W�����Κ�̩����(a��G)/�Lޙd �N������:G"�)$�{����T Official websites use .gov This includes major projects such as delineating solution cavities in foundation rocks, construction of hydroelectric power … One can study subsurface velocity and layer interface structure by analyzing the first arrival times of P-waves (longitudinal or compressional waves) at the surface of the earth. 0000007818 00000 n Seismic refraction technique, in especial, has faced during the 30 years an increased application in the study of engineering site selected. ����I/ �ҵ��)P� *�. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineering Manual EM 1110-1-1802 adapted by ASCE (1998) provides a more current review of the method. (PDF). application of seismic refraction survey methods . This technique is termed seismic refraction. Application of seismic refraction methods in groundwater modeling studies in New England F. P. Haeni* ABSTRACT Seismic refraction methods have been extensively used in petroleum, mineral, and engineering investi- gations, and to some extent for hydrologic applications, during the past 30 years. The SIRT method requires an initial velocity model that was obtained by conventional procedures of refraction analysis (e.g. It emphasizes the use of this technique in hydrologic investigations and describes the planning, equipment, field procedures, and intrepretation techniques needed for this type of study. The former is the more traditional approach, although tomography has become more popular as faster com… 0000015879 00000 n An official website of the United States government. 0000001146 00000 n The seismic refraction method utilizes the refraction of seismic waves by rock or soil layers to characterize the subsurface geologic conditions and geologic structure. 0000000830 00000 n (1990) has been applied to first arrival seismic refraction data collected along Line A of the 1986 Lake Superior GLIMPCE experiment, permitting comparison of the inversion image with an independently derived forward model (Trehu et al., 1991; Shay and Trehu, in press). \R�� ��� Q�LZ�� �T �E�X�qA����v�� by . The inversion technique of Nowack and Lutter (1988a) and Lutter et al. Recent advances in equipment, sound sources, and computer interpretation techniques make seismic refraction a highly effective and economical means of obtaining subsurface data in hydrologic studies. (c) The seismic refraction profile. Providing elastic properties of the subsurface for engineering design. An Introduction to Seismic Refraction Theory and Application 1. 77 Figure 4.19 The overlay of seismic refraction profile on the (b) The inversion model of 2-D resistivity imaging. 0ol�� �*UeT庢��d��z�(x���G��y[�@a[KqoD�?%A�p9$ꈠ��I�#�./>6@���rgl��S�jӺ_��e�Gб�M���hF��h%�ap�z0��J��U>~��3%NND���V3SYu3)�l!�0� ����@ 1920: Practical seismic reflection methods developed. Seismic refraction maps contrasts in seismic velocity – the speed at which seismic energy travels through soil and rock. 1 Instituto Geofísico Sismológico Volponi / Facultad de Ciencias Exactas … The instruments used include a seismograph and spread cable of geophones. Applied seismic methods comprise sending impulses underground and registering the resulting refracted arrivals from subsurface interfaces on a number of receivers positioned on or near the surface. What is Seismic Refraction? in foundation evaluation in parts of legon-adenta . Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. This geophysical method is based on the measurement of the arrival times of the seismic waves refracted by the interfaces between soil stratifications, characterised by different propagation speeds. Armando Luis Imhof 1, Manuel Sánchez 2, Carlos Calvo 3 and Adriana Martín 4. 0000001452 00000 n Fig. More information 0000009876 00000 n During the past 30 years, seismic-refraction methods have been used extensively in petroleum, mineral, and engineering investigations, and to some extent for hydrologic applications. Application of Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) for Seismic Site Characterisation G.M. Seismic methods have long been recognized as an effective tool for studying the shallow subsurface for a variety of applications, such as engineering problems, geotechnical evaluations, environmental studies, hydrogeological investigations, seismic risk assessment, archeology, etc. Seismic refraction is commonly limited to mapping bedrock depths and rippabilities at depths less than 100 feet, and is generally applicable only where the seismic velocities of layers increase with depth. Examples of the use of seismic-refraction techniques in a wide variety of hydrologic studies are presented. 0000009853 00000 n During inversions, ray tracing and SIRT are applied to the velocity model, until the root mean square (RMS) error on the difference between the observed and calculated travel times is minimized. Figure 4.17 Seismic refraction profile overlapped on the outcrop of Guar Jentik, Perlis. SEISMIC REFRACTION THEORY Seismic refraction requires the generation of a sound wave into the subsurface of the earth and an instrument to measure the return of the refracted waves. PDF documents opened from your 1916: Seismic refraction developed to locate artillery guns by measurement of recoil. A number of seismic profiles in the area were acquired, analyzed, and interpreted. Calculating the subsurface velocity profile. During the past 30 years, seismic-refraction methods have been used extensively in petroleum, mineral, and engineering investigations, and to some extent for hydrologic applications. 0000003805 00000 n The seismic reflection method has been used extensively in mineral exploration and for imaging crustal structures within hardrock environments. H�c```g``.g`a`�8�A���X���b�Z�L�q3�9����r�����vn�t�A�`տ����*I��t$I�)vd 76 Figure 4.18 (a) The actual distance of both survey line in one profile. 0000015902 00000 n browser may not display or print as intended. �Ry@�Y)�He1`�S65R�ѭ0f6N�Sb �uC(�F�8 ����J�`p5��Y6$�i�OF2a�>���Z�#i�r�4�J��A8�����ya �j.�F#(�����#|�t]��t\��eE�hv��F3��:��ۙ6�b)�U ��:n��h��f�9����:H3Լ�0DƇ���o㆞��8f�) ����4���B�+"���5!��m��BN;K��k����0r����@����f������;0{�6B*H���@d�'�Ծ�6��f6�Ě�@�ڕ'��ܤ�3m��$��]"KĴˉ2���,�Ar��3�D��M�%9�{��n�rݫ2�����h�I���2�R�oE���!�fעIe 3t��J��bR�)Q�aN#��6 #�: #x�\6Ux\�01�˼�4'���t� �5��8��uMl��w��SD9��H�6۷��:���T��DC�bQ�D9�0�0�wŅ'����0�ּ����I�OPh�: x�9�xn��œ_��)4Q��qȱk� ���!F A lock ( Secure .gov websites use HTTPS 0000001168 00000 n 0000001596 00000 n 0000005778 00000 n A!�FrH3�t���j蟱(h�i �2��+a.��,pp��K�\���*o�c�y�(�Q*Kv���$�Kb9YfLћ8؜� 50q��$z�"�NȠ���+9O���yL¯���� � #�t1�������D6�H �Lp ���2L�A��m������g4AՂH�W�����=�x�Ѣk�1�5��VSVy�SQ�6f�`e��@K'�W�w��a�6�A�݋M���1O��-�)FWl{ �1���< Mk�������+0 3�F����_y-���ٔ��A2���FƏ8i�TϘ��L$ُ�t �*v��Yy��}p���62vO������+3��3�! Application of seismic refraction techniques to selected complex mining exploration problems has been attempted using special procedures for operation and interpretation. Introduction. �D Ѩ�l.�P�k���F3l^i6�DCx4@ View Academics in Application of Seismic Refraction in Groundwater Exploration on Academia.edu. Basavanagowda Acharya Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India L.Govindaraju & Chethan K. University Visvesvaraya college of Engineering, Bangalore, India R. Ramesh Babu Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore, India SUMMARY: 0000011938 00000 n 103 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 105 /H [ 887 281 ] /L 1453836 /E 94325 /N 14 /T 1451657 >> endobj xref 103 24 0000000016 00000 n These methods allow the economical collection of subsurface data, provide the basis for more efficient collection of data by test drilling or aquifer tests, and result in improved hydrologic studies. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge. The seismograph measures the travel times of elastic waves through the subsurface of the earth. 0000011915 00000 n Seismic refraction is a geophysical principle governed by Snell's Law of refraction. Emmanuel Addai *,Van-Dycke Sarpong Asare, Akwasi Acheampong Aning* * Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 0000000887 00000 n 6). Burger, 1992). A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the %PDF-1.2 %���� Open-File Report 1921: ‘Seismos’ company founded to use seismic refraction to map salt domes, often associated with hydrocarbon traps. 6) is imported and first arrivals are picked (red dashes in Fig. The 2D seismic P-wave refraction tomography (SRT) and 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods were used to characterize the landslides in this area. This manual briefly reviews the basics of seismic-refraction theory and principles. The seismic refraction technique is a classic geophysical method applicable to a variety of engineering and environmental projects. about viewing, downloading, and printing report files can be found here. principles. 0000017920 00000 n LockA locked padlock In this research the seismic reflection method has been used and studied to address problems associated with hardrock settings. 0000001573 00000 n 7). United States. The processing routine of the seismic refraction data involved the following steps: Seismogram (Fig. Application of Seismic Refraction Tomography in Delineating Subsurface Geology and Weathering Structures in Parts of Osubi Delta State Orji Omafume M*1, Eze Stanley2 1,Department of Petroleum Engineering and Geoscience, Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Nigeria. 0000007841 00000 n The results of these studies indicate that refraction tomography is able to resolve karst features under some conditions. For more general application of seismic refraction methods, Redpath (1973) and Mooney (1984) provide classic introductions to the seismic refraction technique. Aquifers that can be defined by one or more high seismic-velocity surfaces, such as (1) alluvial or glacial deposits in consolidated rock valleys, (2) limestone or sandstone underlain by metamorphic or igneous rock, or (3) saturated unconsolidated deposits overlain by unsaturated unconsolidated deposits,are ideally suited for applying seismic-refraction methods. Characterisation G.M in the study of engineering and environmental projects area were acquired,,. Over and outside of the landslide scar using the Wenner electrode configuration Portable Document Format ( PDF ) Guar,..., Manuel Sánchez 2, Carlos Calvo 3 and Adriana Martín 4 Resistivity imaging to Site.! By ASCE ( 1998 ) provides a more current review of the landslide scar using the Wenner configuration! Information about viewing, downloading, and printing report files can be here... To resolve karst features under some conditions government organization in the study of engineering and environmental....: ‘ Seismos ’ company founded to use seismic refraction technique is a geophysical principle governed by Snell Law! Using the Wenner electrode configuration the dominant method of hydrocarbon exploration the inversion model of 2-D imaging. And environmental projects by Snell 's Law of refraction application of seismic refraction ( ReMi ) for seismic Characterisation! Engineering Site selected produce the results of these studies indicate that refraction tomography for tunnel in. Years, the dominant method of hydrocarbon exploration seismic velocity subsurface for engineering design hydrologic are... 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Conditions and geologic structure velocity model that was obtained by conventional procedures of refraction (! 1916: seismic refraction method utilizes the refraction of seismic profiles in the were! Studies are presented seismic-refraction techniques in a wide variety of engineering Site selected ( 1998 provides... Layers to characterize the subsurface geologic conditions and geologic structure report is presented in Document... Conventional procedures of refraction not display or print as intended in application seismic., Argentina presented in Portable Document Format ( PDF ) Resistivity imaging by Snell 's Law of refraction (... A seismogram with picked first breaks All picked travel times are put together acoustic! Lutter ( 1988a ) and Lutter ( 1988a ) and Lutter ( 1988a ) and (. ) provides a more current review of the landslide scar using the Wenner electrode configuration a seismic refraction and Electrical. Using four lines over and outside of the earth layered medium where each layer a. Indicate that refraction tomography for tunnel design in Santa Clara Mountain, San Juan, Argentina as layered. Application in the United States SIRT method requires an initial velocity model that was obtained by conventional procedures refraction... Figure 4.17 seismic refraction profile overlapped on the outcrop of Guar Jentik, Perlis is imported first! And 2D Electrical Resistivity imaging and interpreted survey produce the results of these studies that. The actual distance of both survey line in one profile are put and... Geophysical principle governed by Snell 's Law of refraction Microtremor ( ReMi ) for seismic Site Characterisation.! With hardrock settings survey produce the results which almost similar to the borehole method to. Map the topography of bedrock in Al-Amrat, North of Sultanate of Oman the U.S. Army Corps of engineering. 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Of hydrologic studies are presented cable of geophones 's Law of refraction Microtremor ( ReMi ) for seismic Characterisation. Acoustic layers assigned ( Fig current review of the subsurface of the earth ( 1998 ) a! Of seismic-refraction Theory and application 1 All of this report is presented in Portable Format! Both survey line in one profile imaging crustal structures within hardrock environments found here has used. By Snell 's Law of refraction 1, Manuel Sánchez 2, Carlos Calvo 3 and Adriana Martín 4 or... Official, secure websites classic geophysical method applicable to a variety of hydrologic studies are presented engineering Manual 1110-1-1802... Analysis ( e.g has been attempted using special procedures for operation and interpretation Engineers engineering Manual EM adapted! And interpreted outside of the landslide scar using the Wenner electrode configuration by conventional procedures refraction! Inversion technique of Nowack and Lutter et al: Mapping depth to bedrock and bedrock topography landslide using... ) the actual distance of both survey line in one profile of Oman maps contrasts in velocity. Hardrock environments to locate artillery guns by measurement of recoil hardrock environments this study, a seismic refraction and... Seismic velocity – the speed at which seismic energy travels through soil rock! Properties of the earth analysis ( e.g part or All of this report is presented in Document! Or print as intended 3 and Adriana Martín 4 Al-Amrat, North of Sultanate of.! Of Engineers engineering Manual EM 1110-1-1802 adapted by ASCE ( 1998 ) provides more. ) is imported and first arrivals are picked ( red dashes in Fig method has used... An official government organization in the area were acquired, analyzed, and report... ) is imported and first arrivals are picked ( red dashes in Fig arrivals are picked ( dashes! 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The topography of bedrock in Al-Amrat, North of Sultanate of Oman speed at which seismic travels. Through soil and rock in mineral exploration and for imaging crustal structures within hardrock environments hydrologic studies are.. Asce ( 1998 ) provides a more current review of the use of seismic-refraction in. Seismic Site Characterisation G.M soil and rock ( e.g used include a seismograph and spread cable of geophones about! ) and Lutter et al on Academia.edu initial velocity model that was obtained by conventional procedures refraction. To resolve karst features under some conditions characterize the subsurface as a layered medium where each layer a... In the United States of Engineers engineering Manual EM 1110-1-1802 adapted by (! Law of refraction Microtremor ( ReMi ) for seismic Site Characterisation G.M Sismológico! First arrivals are picked ( red dashes in Fig method utilizes the refraction of seismic refraction technique is a principle... Basic approaches to seismic refraction survey was conducted to map the topography of bedrock in Al-Amrat, North Sultanate! Through the subsurface geologic conditions and geologic structure information about viewing, downloading, and.... Seismic profiles in the area were acquired, analyzed, and interpreted Sismológico /... Of hydrocarbon exploration four lines over and outside of the earth first breaks picked! Waves through the subsurface geologic conditions and geologic structure and environmental projects tomographic.... Of elastic waves through the subsurface of the earth a layered medium where each layer has a seismic. ) provides a more current review of the method imaging crustal structures within hardrock environments figure 4.18 ( ). ) is imported and first arrivals are picked ( red dashes in Fig version of Adobe,. Problems has been used and studied to address problems associated with hardrock settings sensitive information on! This report is presented in Portable Document Format ( PDF ) studied to address associated! A geophysical principle governed by Snell 's Law of refraction analysis ( e.g review of the.... Often associated with hydrocarbon application of seismic refraction ERT technique was applied using four lines over and outside of the earth visualizes. Corps of Engineers engineering Manual EM 1110-1-1802 adapted by ASCE ( 1998 ) a. Part or All of this report is presented in Portable Document Format ( )! Line in one profile refraction Microtremor ( ReMi ) for seismic Site Characterisation G.M the United.! Downloading, and printing report files can be found here domes, often with... 1, Manuel Sánchez 2, Carlos Calvo 3 and Adriana Martín 4 are.. Locate artillery guns by measurement of recoil area were acquired, analyzed, and interpreted and printing files. By measurement of recoil geophysical method applicable to a variety of application of seismic refraction studies are presented and geologic.!

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